Coffee drinkers may have a lower risk of Parkinson’s disease, depression, Alzheimer’s disease, and a common type of skin cancer called basal cell carcinoma. But the standard advice is to limit coffee consumption, mostly because of concerns that it might increase heart disease risk. As part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)–Germany study, 42,659 people (average age 50 years) reported on the amount and type (regular or decaf) of coffee they drank. For nine years, the researchers kept track of how many people developed type 2 diabetes, heart attack, stroke, or cancer. Here’s what the study showed:
“Despite a general belief that coffee may be harmful, the current study found no association between coffee consumption and the risk of chronic disease,” commented the study’s authors. They suggest that other factors like smoking might have confounded the results of earlier studies suggesting that excessive coffee drinking increased heart disease risk, however, as this was an observational study, which can detect patterns but not prove cause and effect, more research is needed to clarify this point.
For best health, it’s wise to opt for a lifestyle of well-known healthy habits, and not rely on any one substance where its role in heart health isn’t well understood. Coffee contains acids that can upset the stomach and cause heartburn. Too much caffeine can also cause irregular heartbeat and interfere with sleep. Pregnant and breast-feeding women are advised to limit caffeine intake, as it can directly affect the developing fetus.
Fortunately, there are lots of other ways to lower your chances of developing chronic disease, like maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, eating a whole foods diet, not smoking, and having a pet.
(Am J Clin Nutr 2012;95:901–8)