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Has Swanson's Borage Oil Been Tested for Pyrrolyzidine Alkaloids?

Question: I would like to know if your borage oil has been tested for pyrrolyzidine alkaloids, as articles I've read said to make sure the brand you use is free of this toxin.

According to Bioriginal, the manufacturer of Swanson EFA Borage Oil, new test results from an independent lab in Germany have lain to rest any concerns about the safety of borage seed oil due to the presence of potentially harmful pyrrolyzidine alkaloids (PAs). Lab analysis conducted found no PAs in refined borage seed oil. The analysis used the most sensitive testing methods currently available in the world, with detection limits of four micrograms per kilogram (mg/kg), or four parts per billion (ppb).

Borage plants produce a variety of alkaloids in the leaf tissue as part of its natural defense system. However, testing down to five parts per million (5ppm) could not detect any PAs in refined oil made from borage seed.

This question was answered by a trained product specialist at Swanson Health Products. Do you have a question you’d like answered? Send it via email to

(Note: as per industry regulations, we cannot and will not answer medical questions, make treatment or diagnosis recommendations or comment on disease inquiries. Such questions must be answered by your doctor or professional health care provider.)


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