Researchers randomly selected 14,641 male physicians to receive a daily multivitamin-mineral supplement or placebo for approximately 11 years. The physicians were 50 years or older, and 5% had a previous history of cardiovascular disease. Other factors, including age, height and weight, tobacco and alcohol use, diet, other medications, and family health history were similar in the supplement and placebo groups.
The multivitamin provided around 100% of the daily value for most essential vitamins and minerals, with a few exceptions. It contained no iron, and for vitamins E and B12, the multivitamin provided significantly more than 100% of the daily value. For vitamin K, biotin, calcium, magnesium, and chromium, it provided significantly less than 100%. The supplement contained some additional nutrients, including lutein and lycopene.
The men taking a daily multivitamin were no more or less likely to experience a major cardiovascular event, including heart attack or stroke, or to die due to heart disease or any other cause, compared with the men who took a placebo. The effect of a daily multivitamin did not differ between men with or without a previous history of cardiovascular disease.
It is wise to avoid putting too much faith in any quick-fix approach to long-term health, though food, supplements, and lifestyle decisions may all be used as tools toward that objective.